A pterygium is a benign wing-shaped growth of the conjunctiva (front surface of the eye containing blood vessels) onto the cornea (front clear surface of the eye). It is thought to be caused by exposure to sun, wind, and dust. Initial symptoms include dry, irritated, red eyes, or feeling like something is in the eye. These can be helped by using artificial tears. As it advances, however, it can obscure vision, and cause refractive errors like astigmatism. When this does happen, surgery to remove the growth is required.
Here is a video that presents a pterygium overview. You may change the audio and subtitles to the language of your choice by hovering over the bottom right of the video and clicking on the “CC” icon.
A pinguecula occurs in the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the part of the front surface of the eye where all the blood vessels are, surrounding the cornea. The pinguecula is a benign yellowish-white deposit, thought to be caused by exposure to sun, wind and dust. It may cause irritation, for which artificial tears can be used.