Pterygium is a benign abnormal growth on the front of the eye. It can be removed surgically under local anesthesia. The area of excision is usually covered with a small piece of conjunctival tissue taken from the patient’s eye that may be sutured or glued to the site. Ideally, pterygium excision is performed prior to cataract surgery as the pterygium may affect the accuracy of Iens power calculations.
Inflammation of the ocular surface may lead to the formation of scar tissues (symblepharon). In general, the surgical approach is guided by the severity of the scarring. A number of reconstruction methods can be used. These include anchoring sutures to the skin of the eyelid, transplantation of amniotic membrane graft or oral mucosal graft, and the intraoperative application of antifibrotic agents. The goals of the surgery are to improve the general health of the ocular surface and to prevent visual loss. The surgery is normally performed after the inflammation is adequately controlled.
Tumors may develop on the surface of the eye. These can either be treated with anti-tumor drops or be surgically removed. If the tumor is removed, it can be analyzed under the microscope by a pathologist who can classify the type. Follow-up is necessary as the tumor may recur later in life.
Amniotic membrane transplantation is an effective method for reconstruction of the ocular surface. Amniotic membrane has been shown to reduce inflammation and scarring, and improve tissue healing. It can be sutured or glued to the ocular surface, and usually disintegrates within 2-3 weeks after surgery.